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Dutch cuisine

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Larrea tridentatacalled creosote bush and greasewood as a plant, [2] chaparral as a medicinal herb, [3] and gobernadora in Mexico. It is Spanish for "governess", due to its ability to secure more water by inhibiting the growth of nearby plants.

It is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. The specific name tridentata refers to its three-toothed leaves. The species grows as far east as Zapata County, Texasalong the Rio Grande southeast of Laredo near the 99th meridian west. Larrea tridentata is an evergreen shrub growing to 1 to 3 m 3 to 10 ft tall, rarely 4 m 13 ft. The flowers are up to 25 mm 1 in in diameter, with five yellow petals. Galls may form what do you want for me mp3 download the activity of the creosote gall midge.

The whole plant exhibits a characteristic odor of creosotefrom which the liquorice wood how to eat name derives. The Arabian camelbrought to the area by the United States Camel Corpsreadily ate creosote bush. It is thought that this meeting reestablished a biological relationship that was broken when the American camels became extinct in the Quaternary Extinction Eventmaking what was happening when you were born an evolutionary anachronism.

As the creosote bush grows older, its oldest branches eventually die and its crown splits into separate crowns. This normally happens when the plant is 30 to 90 years old. Eventually, the old crown dies and the new one becomes a clonal colony from the how to make a working solar panel plant, composed of many separate stem crowns all from the same seed.

The "King Clone" creosote ring is one of the oldest living organisms on Earth. It has been alive an estimated 11, years, in the central Mojave Desert near present-day Lucerne Valley, California.

This single clonal colony plant of L. King Clone was identified and its age estimated by Frank Vasek, a professor at the University of California, Riverside. Measurements of the plant, as well as radiocarbon dating of wood fragments, were used to determine the plant's mean annual growth rate outward from the center of the ring.

By measuring the diameter of the ring, its total age could be estimated. Creosote bush is most common on the well-drained soils of alluvial fans and flats. In parts of its range, it may cover large areas in practically pure stands, though it usually occurs in association with Ambrosia dumosa burro bush or bur-sage.

Creosote bush stands tend to display an evenly spaced distribution of plants. Now, however, it has been shown [ citation needed ] that the root systems of mature creosote plants are simply so efficient at absorbing water that fallen seeds nearby cannot accumulate enough water to germinate, effectively creating dead zones around every plant. Owing to the harshness of the germination environment above mature root systems, young creosote bushes are much more susceptible to drought stress than established plants.

Germination is quite active during wet periods, but most of the young plants die very quickly unless liquorice wood how to eat conditions are optimal.

To become established, the young plant apparently must experience three to five years of abnormally cool and moist weather during and after germination. From this, it can be inferred that all the plants inside a stand are of equal age. Mature plants, however, can tolerate extreme drought stress. In terms of negative water potentialcreosote bushes can operate fully at bars of water potential and have been found living down to bars, although the practical average floor is around bars, where the plant's need for cellular respiration generally exceeds the level that the water-requiring process of photosynthesis can provide.

Cell division can occur during these times of water stress, and new cells commonly quickly absorb water after rainfall. This rapid uptake causes branches to grow several centimeters at the end of a wet season. Water loss is reduced by the resinous waxy coating of the leaves, and by their small size, which prevents them from heating above air temperature which would increase the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the air, thus increasing water loss.

Plants drop some leaves heading into summer, but if all leaves are lost, the plant will not recover. Accumulation of fallen leaves, as well as other detritus caught from the passing wind, creates an ecological community specific to the creosote bush canopy, liquorice wood how to eat beetlesmillipedespocket miceand kangaroo rats. Native Americans in the Southwest held beliefs that it treated many maladies, including sexually what is global catalog server 2003 diseasestuberculosischicken poxdysmenorrheaand snakebite.

The Pima drank a decoction of the leaves as an emeticand applied the boiled leaves as poultices to wounds or sores. Larrea tridentata is often referred to as chaparral when used as a herbal remedy and liquorice wood how to eat however, it does not grow in the synonymous liquorice wood how to eat community chaparral. Cancer Research UK states: "We don't recommend that you take chaparral to treat or prevent any type of cancer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Creosote bush. Species of plant. Coville [1]. Main article: King Clone. See also: Creosote bush scrub. Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 17 February Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West.

ISBN The Vegetation Types of Texas. Texas Parks liquorice wood how to eat Wildlife Service. The Jepson Manual. Berkeley, CA: University of California. Retrieved 30 December The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 5 April University of California Press. US National Park Service. February American Journal of Botany. JSTOR High Country News. Lucerne Valley Community Website. A Natural History of California. Anna Fire Effects Information System.

Forest Service. Bibcode : PNAS PMC PMID March Journal of Ecology. A natural history of California. Berkeley: University of California. US Forest Service. J Ethnopharmacol. Gathering the Desert. University of Arizona Press. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West.

Health Canada. Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 11 August Chinese herbology Indian herbology Islamic herbology Japanese herbology Korean herbology.

List of plants used in herbalism. Taxon identifiers. Hidden categories: Harv and Sfn no-target errors CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles with 'species' microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Commons category link is on Wikidata Use dmy dates from May Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View how to refinish hardwood floor without sanding. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Larrea tridentata DC. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Larrea tridentata.

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Dutch cuisine (Dutch: Nederlandse keuken) is formed from the cooking traditions and practices of the country's cuisine is shaped by its location in the fertile North Sea river delta of the European Plain, giving rise to fishing, farming (for crops and domesticated animals), and trading over sea, its former colonial empire and the spice trade. Larrea tridentata, called creosote bush and greasewood as a plant, chaparral as a medicinal herb, and gobernadora in Mexico. It is Spanish for "governess", due to its ability to secure more water by inhibiting the growth of nearby plants. In Sonora, it is more commonly called hediondilla; Spanish hediondo = "smelly".. It is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) new snapshot poll of 2, adults aged in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland reveals half of adults do not always check .

Dutch cuisine Dutch : Nederlandse keuken is formed from the cooking traditions and practices of the Netherlands.

The country's cuisine is shaped by its location in the fertile North Sea river delta of the European Plain , giving rise to fishing , farming for crops and domesticated animals , and trading over sea, its former colonial empire and the spice trade.

Traditionally, Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, with many vegetables and little meat: breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings like cheese , while dinner is meat and potatoes , supplemented with seasonal vegetables. The diet contains many dairy products and was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the laborers whose culture molded the country.

Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic , though many holidays are celebrated with special foods. During the 20th century, Dutch cuisine and diet changed.

Influenced by the eating culture of its colonies particularly the Dutch East Indies , it became more cosmopolitan and most international cuisines are represented in the major cities. Little evidence is available about food and drink in the late medieval Low Countries. In the consumption of pottage , the Low Countries were not very different from other Western European countries during the Middle Ages.

Half-liquid pottage consisted of milk, beer, water, root vegetable and peas or grain, sometimes enriched with a piece of meat. The content changed throughout the seasons. Beer flavoured with gruit was produced until the 14th century at the monasteries. Gruit was replaced with hop , a tradition introduced from the German city of Bremen , and this started off a beer culture and the Low Counties as a major exporter of beer.

Beer was in medieval times the common drink as water was of poor quality, and milk —coming from the low-lying grasslands of Holland and Friesland—was mainly used for the production of butter and cheese.

Dutch butter and cheese became famous products at an early stage and continued to be so for centuries. The sea and the rivers provided an abundance of fish. The process of gibbing was invented by Willem Beukelszoon , [2] a 14th-century Zealand fisherman.

The invention created an export industry for salt herring Dutch : maatjesharing that was monopolized by the Dutch. They began to build ships and eventually moved from trading in herring to colonizing and the Dutch Lowlands the Netherlands as a country did not exist until , ultimately leading to the Dutch becoming a seafaring power.

Herring is still very important to the Dutch who celebrate Vlaggetjesdag Flag Day each spring, as a tradition that dates back to the 14th century when fishermen went out to sea in their small boats to capture the annual catch Hollandse Nieuwe , and to preserve and export their catch abroad.

Gardening was initially practiced by monasteries, but castles and country houses began also to develop gardens with herbs and vegetables and hunting grounds. The famous tourist attraction and flower park Keukenhof literally kitchen garden is an example of a former 15th-century hunting ground and herbs garden for Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut 's castle kitchen. Orchards for pears and apples connected to castles were later used for export and set off a Dutch horticulture tradition that remains to this day.

During the 15th century haute cuisine began to emerge, largely limited to the aristocracy. Cookery books from this period are aimed at the upper class.

The first Dutch-language cook book printed in Brussels is called Een notabel boecxken van cokeryen A notable book of cookery from ca. The recipes come from various sources, 61 of them are translations of the French recipe book Le Viandier. Historically, Dutch cuisine was closely related to northern French cuisine , since the two countries have nearby borders and the Low Countries and Northern France have been historically ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy. This is still visible in traditional Dutch restaurants and the Southern regional cuisine, that is still colloquially referred to as Bourgondisch.

As the Dutch Republic entered its Golden Age in the 17th century, dishes of this kind became available to the wealthy middle class as well, often consisting of a rich variety of fruits, cheeses, meat, wine, and nuts.

Tea was served with sweets, candy or marzipan and cookies. The availability of relatively cheaper spices resulted in a tradition of spiced cookies called speculaas , the exact recipes of which were kept secret by bakers.

Vegetables, meat, poultry and salted, smoked or fresh fish and eggs were prepared in the Dutch kitchens of the time. Exotic ingredients such as dates, rice, cinnamon, ginger and saffron were used.

Savoury tarts and pastries followed. The meal ended with jellies, cheese, nuts and sweet pastries, washed down with sweet spiced wine. Kitchen scene from , with swan pie, game, fish and apples, by David Teniers the Younger. Mince pie and Lemon by Pieter Claesz , Still-Life with fruit, nuts and cheese by Floris Claeszoon van Dyck. In the late 18th century the potato gained popularity, to become a staple food by Their diet was frugal, composed of such simple dishes as bread and herring.

Throughout the 19th century many people suffered from some form of malnutrition. Potatoes, in fact, were often eaten at every meal, every day of the week. They were peeled and boiled for the main meal, lunch, and then warmed and mashed for dinner, with leftovers saved for breakfast. They were served with salt, sometimes vinegar, but without gravy or any other fat, making for a diet with "incredible monotony".

During the 19th century, the poor people drank little else but water of poor quality , sometimes watery coffee or chicory or tea. In some areas hot chocolate was consumed, but the most popular drinks beside water were beer and jenever. For most of the century beer was drunk in the southern part, where Catholicism dominated, and in Catholic enclaves in the other areas. Jenever consumption early in the 19th century was twice that of the equivalent consumption of distilled spirits in neighbouring countries.

The modest and plain look of what is nowadays considered the traditional Dutch cuisine, appears to be the result of a fairly recent development. In the twentieth century, the new availability of mass education meant that a great number of girls could be sent to a new school type, the Huishoudschool housekeeping school , where young women were trained to become domestic servants and where lessons in cooking cheap and simple meals were a major part of the curriculum, often based on more traditional Dutch dishes, and leading to increased uniformity in the Dutch diet.

Values taught in that school system included frugality, proper table manners, and healthy eating. Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine. The regions in the north and east of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of Groningen , Friesland , Drenthe , Overijssel and Gelderland north of the great rivers make up north eastern Dutch cuisine. The region is the least populated area of the Netherlands. The late 18th century introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats.

The relative lack of farms allowed for an abundance of game and husbandry , though dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer also include a large amount of fish. The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst -family of Dutch sausages, are found throughout the region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste.

Most towns and various villages have their own variety of this sausage. The region also produces the traditional smoked sausages, of which Gelderse rookworst is the most renowned.

These sausages traditionally have been smoked over wood chips, and are served after they have been boiled in water. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot , hutspot or zuurkool sauerkraut ; whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food.

In Gelderland and Overijssel kruudmoes was a traditional food. The provinces are also home to rye bread a kind of Pumpernickel and many kinds of pastries and cookies.

In contrast to southern Dutch cuisine, which tends to be soft and moist, the northeastern rye bread and pastries generally are of a hard texture, and the pasties are heavily spiced with ginger or succade or contain small bits of meat. Each of the provinces of Gelderland, Overijssel and Groningen has a long-standing rye bread tradition, but rye bread from Friesland became well known because of its taste.

Notable characteristics of Fries roggebrood Frisian rye bread is its long baking time up to 20 hours , resulting in a sweet taste and a deep dark color. In terms of alcoholic beverages, the region is renowned for its many bitters such as Beerenburg and other high-proof liquors rather than beer, which is, apart from Jenever , typical for the rest of the country.

As a coastal region, Friesland is home to low-lying grasslands, and thus has a cheese production in common with the Western cuisine. Friese Nagelkaas Friesian Clove is a notable example. The provinces of North Holland , South Holland , Zeeland , Utrecht and the Gelderlandic region of Betuwe are the parts of the Netherlands which make up the region in which western Dutch cuisine is found.

Due to the abundance of surface water and grassland, necessary to sustain dairy cattle, the area is known for its many dairy products, which includes prominent cheeses such as Gouda , Leyden spiced cheese with cumin , Edam traditionally in small spheres as well as Leerdammer , and Beemster. Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties.

A by-product of the butter-making process, karnemelk buttermilk , is also considered typical for this region. Seafood such as soused herring , mussels called Zeeuwse Mosselen , since all Dutch mussels for consumption are cleaned in Zeeland's Oosterschelde , eels , oysters and shrimps are widely available and typical for the region. Kibbeling , once a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fish , has become a national fast food , just as Lekkerbekje [ nl ].

Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often contain large amounts of sugar; either caramelized, powdered or crystallized. The oliebol in its modern form and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples. Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter and sugar, like stroopwafel , as well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond, like Gevulde koek [ nl ].

Zaanstreek in North Holland is known for its chocolate industry, due to the development of the Dutch process chocolate in by Coenraad van Houten , that introduced the modern era of chocolate and was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form which was up till then drunk as a liquid. Zaanstreek is since the 16th century also known for its mayonnaise for the Dutch a popular condiment to eat with French fries , and typical whole-grain mustards popular to eat with bitterballen.

The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer strong pale lager and Jenever , a high proof juniper -flavored spirit, that came to be known in England as gin. A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaat , a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages renowned for its splendor and great feasts.

It is the only Dutch culinary region which developed an haute cuisine and it forms the base of most traditional Dutch restaurants including typical main courses served such as Biefstuk , Varkenshaas , Ossenhaas , these are premium cuts of meat, generally pork or beef , accompanied by a wide variety of sauces and potatoes which have been double fried in the traditional Dutch or Belgian manner.

Stews, such as hachee , a stew of onions , beef and a thick gravy, contain a lot of flavour and require hours to prepare. Vegetable soups are made from richly flavored stock or bouillon and typically contain small meatballs alongside a wide variety of different vegetables.

Asparagus and witloof are highly prized and traditionally eaten with cheese or ham. Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits.

Savoury pastries also occur, with the Brabantian worstenbroodje a roll with a sausage of ground beef , literally translates into sausage bread being the most popular. The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist beer to Kriek lambic.

Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews. Dutch agriculture roughly consists of five sectors: tillage -based, greenhouse -based, fruit agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. Indonesian and Indo dishes became popular due to the arrival of former Dutch colonials and people of Eurasian descent into the Netherlands, especially after the independence of Indonesia from Dutch colonial rule in Countess van Limburg Stirum writes in her book The Art of Dutch Cooking : "There exist countless Indonesian dishes, some of which take hours to prepare; but a few easy ones have become so popular that they can be regarded as 'national dishes'".

She then provides recipes for nasi goreng fried rice , pisang goreng fried bananas , lumpia goreng fried spring rolls , bami fried noodles , satay grilled skewered meat , satay sauce peanut sauce , and sambal oelek chilli paste.

While popular in the Netherlands, rijsttafel is now rare in Indonesia itself, while almost every town in the Netherlands has an Indonesian-Chinese restaurant.