What do the colors of England's flag represent?
The meanings of the colors on the flag of England are: white for peace, and red for bravery and hardiness. England is one of the states in the United Kingdom. As such, officially it has no flag of its own, and uses the Union Jack (the flag of the United Kingdom) as its flag. Apr 04, · The English flag has a red cross on a white background, which represents England's patron saint, Saint George. This symbol is known as Saint George's Cross. The red cross was used by English soldiers in the crusades, and it is believed to have been adopted by Richard the Lionheart.
The earliest form what happened to the nazis after the war the flag of Great Britain, ejgland in and used during the reigns of Enland I —25 and Charles I —49displayed the coloes cross of England superimposed tje the white cross of Scotland, with the blue field of the latter.
Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field.
During the Commonwealth and Protectorate period —60the Irish harp was incorporated in the flag, but it resumed its original form on the Restoration of Charles II in It continued in use until January 1,the effective date of the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland.
In order to incorporate the Cross of St. Patrick a red diagonal cross on white while preserving the individual entities of the three crosses, the heraldic advisers to the sovereign found an elegant solution.
The existing white Cross of St. Andrew was divided diagonally, with the red appearing below the white on the hoist half of the flag and englad it on the fly half. To avoid having the red cross touch the blue background, which would be contrary to heraldic law, a fimbriation narrow border of white was added to the what do the colors of the england flag mean cross. In the centre, a white fimbriation also separated the Cross of St.
Patrick from the red Cross of St. The Union Jack is the most important of all British flags and is flown by representatives of the Eng,and Kingdom all the world over. In wwhat authorized military, naval, royal, and other uses, it may be incorporated into another flag.
While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Author of Flags and Arms Across the World and others.
See Article History. George EnglandSt. Andrew Scotlandand St. Patrick Ireland. Initially the Union Flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels, but it was commonly called the Union Jack by the late 17th century; now, either name is acceptable.
The flag is flown on land for government and military purposes, and at sea it serves as a flag for the Royal Navy. The general public uses what do the colors of the england flag mean unofficially as a civil flag.
Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2. Union Enhland —in which are combined the white-on-blue Off of St. Andrew for Scotland and the red-on-white Cross of St. George for England. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Thought was given to an all-Australian flag long what is the functions of the thyroid gland confederation was achieved on January 1, For example, in a National Colonial Flag displayed four white eight-pointed stars on….
The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 1 to 2. A federation of Maori tribes established a national flag on March 20, The field of the flag was…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened Englnd This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email enbland. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
England’s flag is represented by a red cross set on a white background. This cross is known as the St George’s Cross and has represented England is various forms from as far back as the Middle Ages and the Crusades (a religiously sanctioned series of military campaigns, which were waged by a large proportion of Western Europe in their efforts to restore Christianity and reclaim Christian. Apr 14, · Union Flag (–), in which are combined the white-on-blue Cross of St. Andrew (for Scotland) and the red-on-white Cross of St. George (for England). The Union Jack is the most important of all British flags and is flown by representatives of the United Kingdom all the world over. I think you mean the Union Jack. Great Britain only refers to the largest of the British Isles and includes England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom now only includes the northern part of the ‘British’ island of Ireland. The flag is made up.
Though no law has been passed officially making the Union Jack the national flag of the United Kingdom, it has effectively become the national flag through precedent. The flag has official status in Canada , by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. The Union Flag also appears in the canton upper flagstaff-side quarter of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions , as well as the state flag of Hawaii.
The claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in The origins of the earlier flag of Great Britain date back to King James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England , Scotland , and Ireland in a personal union , although the three kingdoms remained separate states.
On 12 April , a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England , a red cross on a white background, known as St George's Cross , and the flag of Scotland , a white saltire X-shaped cross, or St Andrew's Cross on a blue background, would be joined, forming the flag of England and Scotland for maritime purposes. The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in There are no symbols representing Wales in the flag, making Wales the only home nation with no representation.
However, the Welsh Dragon was adopted in the coat of arms of the ruling Tudor dynasty. The terms Union Jack and Union Flag are both used historically for describing the national flag of the United Kingdom. Whether the term Union Jack applies only when used as a jack flag on a ship is a matter of debate.
According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom :   "Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two entirely independent kingdoms Wales had been annexed into The Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts and This changed dramatically in on the death of Elizabeth I of England. Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland.
England and Scotland now shared the same monarch under what was known as a union of the crowns. According to the Flag Institute , a membership-run vexillological charity,  "the national flag of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories is the Union Flag, which may also be called the Union Jack. From early in its life the Admiralty itself frequently referred to the flag as the Union Jack, whatever its use, and in an Admiralty circular announced that Their Lordships had decided that either name could be used officially.
In , a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag". Notwithstanding Their Lordships' circular of , by the Admiralty described the "Union Flag" and added in a footnote that 'A Jack is a Flag to be flown only on the "Jack" Staff'. Andrew and St.
George of the Third, fimbriated as the Saltire When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in ,  it became known simply as the "British flag" or the "flag of Britain". The royal proclamation gave no distinctive name to the new flag. The word "jack" was in use before to describe the maritime bow flag. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by , while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was commonly called the "Union Jack", and this was officially acknowledged.
A proclamation issued by King George III at the time of the Union of concerned flags at sea and repeatedly referred to "Ensigns, Flags, Jacks, and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships.
The size and power of the Royal Navy internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and colonies , it is possible that the term jack occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the jackstaff a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship.
The term Union Jack possibly dates from Queen Anne's time r. It may come from the 'jack-et' of the English or Scottish soldiers, or from the name of James I who originated the first union in Even if the term "Union Jack" does derive from the jack flag, after three centuries, it is now sanctioned by use and has appeared in official use, confirmed as the national flag by Parliament and remains the popular term. The Jack — A small flag worn on a jackstaff on the stem of Naval Vessels. The Royal Navy wears the Union Flag This is the only occasion when it correct to describe the flag as the Union Jack".
In the Reed's Nautical Almanac , the only entry where this might appear, section 5. Within the Almanac , neither the Union Flag nor the Union Jack are included pictorially or mentioned by name. For comparison with another anglophone country with a large navy, the Jack of the United States specifically refers to the flag flown from the jackstaff of a warship, auxiliary or other U.
The Butcher's Apron is a pejorative term for the flag, common among Irish republicans , citing the blood-streaked appearance of the flag and referring to atrocities committed in Ireland and other countries under British colonial rule.
It was later blamed on the actions of a researcher, who resigned yet claimed that the comment had been approved by White. The current flag's design has been in use since Patrick quartered per saltire counter changed argent and gules; the latter fimbriated of the second [viz. George of the third [viz. The Union Jack is normally twice as long as it is tall, a ratio of In the United Kingdom, land flags are normally a ratio of ; the Union Jack can also be made in this shape, but is for most purposes.
In , MP Andrew Rosindell proposed a Ten Minute Rule bill to standardise the design of the flag at , but the bill did not proceed past the first reading. Flags that have the Union Jack in the canton should always be to preserve the square fly area.
The crosses and fimbriations retain their thickness relative to the flag's height whether they are shown with a ratio of or The Admiralty in settled all official flags at proportions of , but the relative widths of the crosses remained unspecified, with the above conventions becoming standardised in the 20th century. The colour specifications for the colours Union Jack royal blue, Union Flag red and white are: . Although the colour schemes are official, not all of the colours are completely congruent.
This is due to different specifications for different types of media for example, screen and print. The flag does not have reflection symmetry due to the slight pinwheeling of the St Patrick's and St Andrew's crosses, technically the counterchange of saltires.
Thus, there is a correct side up. The original specification of the Union Flag in the Royal Proclamation of 1 January did not contain a drawn pattern or express which way the saltires should lie; they were simply "counterchanged" and the red saltire fimbriated.
Nevertheless, a convention was soon established which accords most closely with the description. The flag was deliberately designed with the Irish saltire slightly depressed at the hoist end to reflect the earlier union with Scotland, giving as it were seniority to the Saint Andrew's cross.
When statically displayed, the hoist is on the observer's left. To fly the flag correctly, the white of St Andrew is above the red of St Patrick in the upper hoist canton the quarter at the top nearest to the flag-pole.
This is expressed by the phrases wide white top and broadside up. Note that an upside-down flag must be turned over to be flown correctly, rotating it degrees will still result in an upside-down flag.
The first drawn pattern for the flag was in a parallel proclamation on 1 January , concerning civil naval ensigns, which drawing shows the red ensign also to be used as a red jack by privateers. As it appears in the London Gazette , the broad stripe is where expected for three of the four quarters, but the upper left quarter shows the broad stripe below.
It is often stated that a flag upside down is a form of distress signal or even a deliberate insult. In the case of the Union Flag, the difference is subtle and is easily missed by the uninformed.
It is often displayed upside down inadvertently—even on commercially-made hand waving flags. On 3 February , the BBC reported that the flag had been inadvertently flown upside-down by the UK government at the signing of a trade agreement with Chinese premier Wen Jiabao.
Although the most common ratio is , other ratios exist. In this version, the innermost points of the lower left and upper right diagonals of the St Patrick's cross are cut off or truncated. The Queen's Harbour Master's flag, like the Pilot Jack, is a flag that contains a white-bordered Union Flag that is longer than The jacks of ships flying variants of the Blue Ensign are square and have a square Union Flag in the canton.
On 12 April , a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England a red cross on a white background, known as St George's Cross , and the flag of Scotland a white saltire on a blue background, known as the saltire or St Andrew's Cross , would be joined together,  forming the flag of Great Britain and first union flag:.
By the King: Whereas, some differences hath arisen between Our subjects of South and North Britaine travelling by Seas, about the bearing of their Flagges: For the avoiding of all contentions hereafter.
This royal flag was, at first, to be used only at sea on civil and military ships of both England and Scotland, whereas land forces continued to use their respective national banners. It was then adopted by land forces as well, although the blue field used on land-based versions more closely resembled that of the blue of the flag of Scotland. Various shades of blue have been used in the saltire over the years.
The ground of the current Union Flag is a deep " navy " blue Pantone , which can be traced to the colour used for the Blue Ensign of the Royal Navy 's historic "Blue Squadron". Dark shades of colour were used on maritime flags on the basis of durability. In a committee of the Scottish Parliament recommended that the flag of Scotland use a lighter " royal " blue Pantone the Office of the Lord Lyon does not detail specific shades of colour for use in heraldry. A thin white stripe, or fimbriation , separates the red cross from the blue field, in accordance with heraldry's rule of tincture where colours like red and blue must be separated from each other by metals like white, i.
The blazon for the old union flag, to be compared with the current flag, is azure, the cross saltire of St Andrew argent surmounted by the Cross of St George gules, fimbriated of the second.
The Kingdom of Ireland , which had existed as a personal union with England since , was unrepresented in the original versions of the Union Jack. These were removed at the Restoration , because Charles II disliked them.
The original flag appears in the canton of the Commissioners' Ensign of the Northern Lighthouse Board. This is the only contemporary official representation of the pre Union Jack in the United Kingdom  and can be seen flying from their George Street headquarters in Edinburgh.
The actual flag, preserved in the National Maritime Museum , is a cruder approximation of the proper specifications; this was common in 18th and early 19th century flags. On the plaque it is referred to as the "Jack of Queen Anne". This is not the equivalent of the ensigns of the other armed services but is used at recruiting and military or sporting events, when the army needs to be identified but the reverence and ceremony due to the regimental flags and the Union Jack would be inappropriate.
Various other designs for a common flag were drawn up following the union of the two Crowns in , but were rarely, if ever, used. A painted wooden ceiling boss from Linlithgow Palace , dated to about , depicts the Scottish royal unicorn holding a flag where a blue Saltire surmounts the red cross of St. In objecting to the design of the Union Flag adopted in , whereby the cross of Saint George surmounted that of Saint Andrew, a group of Scots took up the matter with John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar , and were encouraged by him to send a letter of complaint to James VI, via the Privy Council of Scotland , which stated that the flag's design " will breid some heit and miscontentment betwix your Majesties subjectis, and it is to be feirit that some inconvenientis sail fall oute betwix thame, for our seyfaring men cannot be inducit to resave that flage as it is set down ".
There is reason to think that cloth flags of this design were employed during the 17th century for unofficial use on Scottish vessels at sea. On land, evidence confirming the use of this flag appears in the depiction of Edinburgh Castle by John Slezer , in his series of engravings entitled Theatrum Scotiae , c. Appearing in later editions of Theatrum Scotiae , the North East View of Edinburgh Castle engraving depicts the Scotch to use the appropriate adjective of that period version of the Union Flag flying from the Palace block of the Castle.
On 17 April , just two weeks prior to the Acts of Union coming into effect, and with Sir Henry St George, the younger , the Garter King of Arms , having presented several designs of flag to Queen Anne and her Privy Council for consideration, the flag for the soon to be unified Kingdom of Great Britain was chosen.
At the suggestion of the Scots representatives, the designs for consideration included that version of Union Jack showing the Cross of Saint Andrew uppermost; identified as being the " Scotts union flagg as said to be used by the Scotts ". A manuscript compiled in by William Fox and in possession of the Flag Research Center includes a full plate showing " the scoth [ sic ] union " flag. This could imply that there was still some use of a Scottish variant before the addition of the cross of St Patrick to the Union Flag in The new design added a red saltire , the cross of Saint Patrick , for Ireland.
This is counterchanged with the saltire of St Andrew, such that the white always follows the red clockwise.