Berm In a barrier beach system, the relatively flat, sandy area between the berm crest and the dunes formed by the deposit of material by wave action. Some beaches have no berm, others have one or several. Berm Crest The seaward limit of a berm. Breakwater. For example, an earth berm with low-growth, drought-tolerant plants can act as a noise barrier from highway traffic, can meet sustainable development principles, and can help meet security requirements for standoff distance from buildings. Glazing. Windows and glazing are key elements of the building envelope. These elements must allow daylight.
Delaware Apparel. This glossary of ocean terms defines words and phrases you may have heard but don't quite understand. Hydraulic or mechanical movement of what is an earth berm home, from an area of accretion to a downdrift area of erosion, across a barrier to natural sand transport such as an inlet or harbor entrance.
The hydraulic movement may include natural movement as well as movement caused by man. An intense tropical cyclone with winds that move counterclockwise around a low-pressure system. Maximum sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or greater. The average height of the surface of the sea at a given place for all stages of the tide over a year period. If you would like your business listed on Beach-net Contact us here! Beach-Net : Coastal Hwy. Please read Beach-Net.
Accretion May be either natural or artifical. Natural accretion is the buildup of land, solely by the action of the forces of nature, on a beach by deposition of water-borne or airborne material.
Artificial accretion is a similar buildup of land by reason of an act of man, such as the accretion formed by a groin, breakwater, or beach fill deposited by mechanical means. Alongshore Parallel to and near the shoreline. Same as longshore. A-Zone Flood zone subject to still-water flooding during storms that have a year recurrence interval. Backbarrier Flats Low-lying sandy regions on the landward side of the sand dunes. Often covered with salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs.
Backbarrier Marsh Marsh formed behind a coastal barrier, often containing significant coarse sediment that has washed in from the seaward side. Backrush The seaward return of what is an earth berm home following the uprush of the waves.
For any given tide stage, the point of farthest return seaward of the backrush is known as the limit of backrush. Backshore That zone of shore or beach lying between the foreshore and the dunes and acted upon by waves only during severe storms, especially when combined with exceptionally high water.
It includes the berm or groins. Bar A submerged or emerged mound of sand, gravel or shell material built on the ocean floor in shallow water by waves and currents. Barrier Beach A sedimentary land-form essentially parallel to the shore, the crest of which is above normal high water level. Also called how to read weight watchers scales barrier island. Barrier Island A barrier beach that is unconnected to the mainland.
Barrier Lagoon A what is an earth berm home roughly parallel to the coast and separated from the open ocean by barrier islands or spits. Barrier Spit A barrier beach that is connected to land at one end with the other end extending how to make a greek costume for a child a body of water such as a bay, lagoon or ocean.
Bay What is an earth berm home recess in the shore or an inlet of a sea between two capes or headlands, not as large as a gulf but larger than a cove. Beach A zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physiographic form, or to the line of permanent vegetation usually the effective limit of storm waves. Beach Erosion The carrying away of beach materials by wave action, tidal currents, littoral currents or wind.
Beach Face The section of the beach normally exposed to the action of wave uprush. The foreshore of a beach. Berm In a barrier beach system, the relatively flat, sandy area between the berm crest and the dunes formed by the deposit of material by wave action.
Some beaches have no berm, others have one or several. Berm Crest The seaward limit of a berm. Breakwater A linear, floating or mound-like coastal engineering structure constructed offshore parallel to the shoreline to proteft what teams won the last 5 super bowls shoreline, harbor or anchorage from storm waves. Bypassing Sand Hydraulic or mechanical movement of sand, from an area of accretion to a downdrift area of erosion, across a barrier to natural sand transport such as an inlet or harbor entrance.
Current, Littoral How to make soft chocolate brownies current in the littoral zone caused primarily by wave action, i. Current, Longshore The littoral current in the breaker zone that moves essentially parallel to the shore, usually generated by waves breaking at an angle to the shoreline.
Cusp Scallop-like ridges and depressions in the sand spaced at regular intervals along the beach. Downdrift In the direction of the predominant movement of sediment along the shore.
The side of a groin, jetty or other structure which is deprived of sand. Dredging The removal of sediment or the excavation of tidal or subtidal bottom to provide sufficient depths for navigation or anchorage, or to obtain material for construction or for beach nourishment.
Dune Any natural hill, mound or ridge of sediment landward of a coastal berm deposited by the wind or by storm overwash. Sediment deposited by artificial means and serving the purpose of storm-damage prevention and what is an earth berm home control. Ebb Tide The period of tide between high water and low water. A falling tide. Erosion The wearing away of land by the action of natural forces. On a beach, the carrying away of beach material by wave action, tidal currents, littoral currents, or wind.
Estuary The part of a river that is affected by tides. The region near a river mouth in which the freshwater of the river mixes with the saltwater of the sea. Estuarine Pertaining to an estuary. Fetch The distance over water in which waves are generated by a wind having a rather constant direction and speed.
Flood Tide The period of tide between low water and high water. A rising tide. Foredune The front dune immediately behind the backshore. Foreshore The steeper part of the beach that extends from the low water mark to the upper limit of high tide.
The beach face. Groin A narrow, elongated coastal-engineering structure built on the beach perpendicular to the trend of the beach. Its purpose is to trap longshore drift to build up a section of beach.
Headland An area of high elevation more resistant to erosion than surrounding areas and less susceptible to flooding. Headlands can supply sand and gravel to beaches. High Tide The maximum elevation reached by each rising tide. Hurricane An intense tropical cyclone with winds that move counterclockwise around a low-pressure system. Jetty A narrow, elongated coastal-engineering structure built perpendicular to the shoreline at inlets.
Designed to prevent longshore drift from filling the inlet and to provide protection for navigation. Lagoon A shallow body of water, as a pond or lake, usually connected to the sea. Littoral Drift The sedimentary material moved in the littoral zone under the influence of waves and currents. Littoral Transport The movement of littoral drift in the littoral zone by waves and currents. Littoral Zone In beach terminology, an indefinite zone extending seaward from the shoreline to just beyond the breaker zone.
Low Tide The minimum elevation reached by each falling tide. Marsh An area of soft, wet or periodically inundated land, generally treeless and usually characterized by grasses and other low growth. Mean High Water The average height of all of the high waters recorded at a given place over a year period. Mean Low Water The average height of all of the low waters recorded at a given place over a year period.
Mean Sea Level The average height of the surface of the sea at a given place for all what do in las vegas besides gambling of the tide over a year period. Neap Tide A tide occurring near the time of quadrature of the moon with the sun. The neap tide range what is an earth berm home usually to percent less than the mean tidal range.
Northeaster On the U. East Coast, a storm low-pressure system whose counterclockwise winds approach the shore from the northeast as the storm passes an area.
Its steeper waves approaching from the opposite direction to normal lower waves can cause coastal erosion. Nourishment The placement of sediment on a beach or dunes by mechanical means. Overwash The uprush and overtopping of a coastal dune by storm waters. Sediment is usually carried with the overwashing water and deposited, usually how to put a fake tattoo a fan shape, on the landward side of the dune or barrier.
Riprap A layer, facing, or protective mound of stones randomly placed what is an earth berm home prevent erosion, scour or sloughing of a structure or embankment. Also the stone so used. Revetment An apron-like, sloped, coastal-engineering structure built on a dune face or fronting a seawall.
Designed to dissipate the force of storm waves and prevent undermining of a seawall, dune or placed fill. Salt Marsh A marsh periodically flooded by salt how to get rid of stomach virus. Scarp An almost vertical slope along the beach caused by erosion by wave action.
It may vary in height from a few inches to several feet, depending on wave action and the nature and composition of the beach. Seawall A vertical, wall-like coastal-engineering structure built parallel to the beach or duneline and usually located at the back of the beach or the seaward edge of the dune.
Sediment Solid particles or masses of particles that originate from the weathering of rocks and are transported, suspended in, or deposited by air, water or ice, or by other natural agents such as chemical precipitation and organic secretion.
Spring Tide A tide that occurs at or near the time of new or full moon syzygy and that rises highest and falls lowest from the mean sea level. Surf Zone The area between the outermost breaker and the limit of wave uprush. Tide The periodic rising and falling of the water that results from gravitational attraction of the moon, the sun and other astronomical bodies acting upon the rotating earth.
Updrift The direction opposite that of the predominant movement of sediment along the shore. The side of a groin, jetty or other structure where sand accumulates.
The acoustical environment of a workspace is typically given little or no attention during project planning and design. The functionality and aesthetics of the workspace are usually the primary focus of the designer. Too often overlooked, are the factors contributing to the productivity of employees occupying the workspace.
Providing a comfortable environment for employees contributes significantly to their optimum performance and reduced absenteeism. Workspace comfort is really a combination of factors that includes daylighting and electric lighting , indoor environmental quality , temperature, and acoustics. The assault on ears in the workplace can come from traffic noise outside, mechanical equipment in adjacent spaces, and copiers, phones, and voices within the workspace. The focus of this resource page is primarily on acoustic comfort in offices, classrooms, and conference rooms, though the concepts may apply to other space types, as well.
For other occupancies see the references at the end of this page. What is the solution to incorporating acoustics into the project development process? Employ an integrated design approach.
Though there are some differences in the acoustical requirements of offices, classrooms, and conference rooms, several common noise problems affect these occupancies:.
Noise in these occupancies is typically not at a high enough level to be harmful to human hearing. Rather, the noise is distracting from concentration on work or study and provides less than ideal working and learning environments. A satisfactory indoor acoustical environment actually starts by knowing what is going on outdoors. Follow these guidelines when selecting a site for an office building or educational facility :.
Determine what else is planned for the site in the future. Your building may be the first one built, but if future buildings are acoustically incompatible with yours, significant remediation measures may be necessary to return the interior sound environment to an acceptable level.
To protect the spaces in a building from noise from a nearby highway or railway, lay out the building so that restrooms, mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, and other less noise-sensitive spaces are adjacent to the roadway. When designing a campus near high noise activity, locate gymnasiums and other less noise-sensitive facilities closer to the noise source and place buildings needing quiet surroundings in the shadow of those facilities.
As always, while siting for noise control, incorporate sustainable site planning into the decision-making process. It is more likely for a project to remain within budget if opportunities are sought to apply a single design approach to achieve multiple design objectives.
For example, an earth berm with low-growth, drought-tolerant plants can act as a noise barrier from highway traffic, can meet sustainable development principles, and can help meet security requirements for standoff distance from buildings. Windows and glazing are key elements of the building envelope. These elements must allow daylight to enter the space, reject heat and glare, control sound and, for some projects, be blast resistant. The extent of windows and glazing, and their size and location are decisions that must be made in the project concept phase to ensure proper windows and glazing are chosen.
Keep in mind that multiple glazing types are likely for many projects based on the building orientation, proximity of intrusive noise sources, and vulnerability assessments and risk analysis. Open office environments provide greater flexibility than enclosed offices by using easy to relocate low-height, moveable partitions or systems furniture to form individual workspaces, rather than employing full-height permanent partitions.
The initial cost for open office environments is less than that for enclosed offices and reconfiguration can be done rapidly at minimal cost. These factors have led to an increased use of open office environments in both the federal and private sectors. Acoustical problems have surfaced in open office environments causing employees distraction, stress, and interference with telephone conversation and normal work routine.
How serious is the problem of poor workplace acoustics? Over 60 percent of occupants in cubicles think acoustics interfere with their ability to get their job done. The firm of HOK conducted post-occupancy evaluations of seven green buildings they designed.
Though occupants of green buildings generally show a higher level of satisfaction with their built environment than do occupants of standard buildings, their buildings fall short in some key areas. Common complaints included: acoustics too noisy, not enough privacy , thermal comfort limited temperature control , and daylighting too much glare and light spill.
Contributors to unacceptable noise in the workspace include indiscriminate use of speakerphones, low partition heights, ringing phones, noisy copy machines, and office chatter. The ideal office environment would give workers individual control of temperature, lighting, and acoustics in their personal workspace. Though conference rooms and private offices have stationary partitions from the floor to the suspended acoustical ceiling, acoustical problems can still occur.
Most workplace environments should have quiet havens—places where private conversations can occur without being heard in adjacent rooms or passageways for employee matters, contract negotiations, classified discussions, etc. Sound can travel over partition walls and through the suspended acoustical ceiling. To be an effective sound barrier between rooms, partitions need to extend to the structural deck.
Classrooms are environments designated for learning, not just for school-age children , but for adult training as well. Classrooms have become multimedia communications environments, further increasing the importance of classroom acoustics. Good acoustics for learning support easy verbal communication, which requires low noise levels and very little reverberation. In the past, classrooms may have been constructed without adequate consideration of sound acoustical principles. Sources of noise hampering students' concentration include:.
To reduce noise from adjoining classrooms, do not have doors adjacent to each other or have doors directly across from each other. Rather, offset the door locations to extend the sound travel path from one classroom to the next. This strategy works well with conference rooms and private offices as well. This Standard provides acoustical performance criteria, design requirements, and design guidelines for new school classrooms and other learning spaces. The standard may be applied when practicable to the major renovation of existing classrooms.
When open ceilings are designed into a building project to optimize daylighting into offices and classrooms, quite often suspended acoustical ceilings are eliminated and the exposed surfaces are painted with highly reflective paint to throw daylight well into the space. The sound absorption value lost by the absence of the suspended ceiling must be replaced in other ways to prevent the space from becoming a highly reverberant field.
High reverberation times are not conducive to concentration and effective learning. For office areas with exposed ceiling structure, specify low reverberation times 0. In other words, the majority of the effective sound absorbing materials in a space are in the suspended acoustical ceiling.
If you design the space without a suspended acoustical ceiling, you must provide sound absorption somewhere else: partitions, banners, drapes, etc.
Carpet on the floor does not replace the lost overhead sound absorption though it reduces footfall noise. HVAC systems should be specified to have an ambient sound level compatible with the occupancy. If HVAC system is too noisy, conversation may be difficult. If HVAC is too quiet, unwanted conversations and other distracting noises will be heard. Productivity is affected. Follow recommended background noise reduction design criteria for typical occupancies in Architectural Graphic Standards.
For example, in office buildings:. Avoid through-the-wall air return louvers that draw air from one room through another in private offices, conference rooms, and other rooms where confidential discussions are expected to occur. All air returns should be ducted. Do not locate air supply or return registers close to each other on opposite sides of a partition wall.
Doing so will cause sound to pass directly from one room to another, negating the acoustical value of the partition. Specify quiet HVAC equipment. Though the price may be somewhat higher, the alternative of using standard equipment may lead to costly and disruptive remediation. Natural ventilation using operable windows is desirable in appropriate climate zones.
Before committing to that strategy, be aware of the outdoor acoustical environment around the building. Unacceptable levels of continuous or intermittent noise outside can preclude the use of this sustainable design strategy.
Sound masking works by producing sound electronically, similar to that of softly blowing air, which is projected through speakers installed above the tiles in the ceiling. This sound is evenly distributed throughout the area being masked and can be adjusted to the individual privacy requirements in any given area. In an open plan office without a suspended ceiling, speakers could be set on the systems furniture or even under the raised floor. Sources for sound masking systems include Dynasound , Lencore , and LogiSon.
There may be opportunities to meet project sustainability goals in conjunction with good acoustical design if they are considered early in the project development phase. For example, a reinforced concrete wall may be recommended as a passive solar design strategy. If the building is located next to a busy highway or railway, that wall could provide the necessary sound transmission reduction to achieve an acceptable indoor acoustical environment. For projects having security requirements, that same wall could serve to mitigate blast.
The key is getting the acoustical, security and sustainability consultants involved at project conception and use the integrated design process throughout the project. Acoustical products like ceiling tiles, insulation, and carpeting, among others can help meet the project's sustainability goals since many of them are recyclable or are manufactured from recycled content. Ceiling tile and carpet tile manufacturers 'take back' their products that are damaged or at end-of-life.
These programs are helping to eliminate the huge amounts of carpet and ceiling tile that used to end up in landfills. The U. Be sure acoustical materials meet applicable fire resistance requirements. Do not use bedding or packing foam as sound absorbers—they are not the same as tested acoustical foam. Directional sound is a new technology in fire safety.
It is an audible means to lead people to safety. The varying tones and intensities coming from directional sound devices offer easy-to-understand cues for finding the ways out. Advantages of directional sounders:. Mechanical Insulation Design Guide. All rights reserved. Skip to main content.
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