What Are Normal Potassium Level Ranges?
Mar 14, · Potassium balances the effects of sodium and helps keep fluid levels within a certain range. Your body should maintain a specific amount of potassium in the blood, ranging from to Jun 03, · The total amount of potassium in the adult body is about 45 millimole (mmol)/kg body weight (about g for a pound adult; 1 mmol = 1 milliequivalent [mEq] or mg potassium) [ 3 ]. Most potassium resides intracellularly, and a small amount is in extracellular fluid [ ].
Get the latest public health information from CDC. Have a question? This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Potassium, see our consumer fact sheet on Potassium. Potassium, the most abundant intracellular cation, is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement.
Potassium is present in all body tissues and is required for normal cell function because of its role in maintaining intracellular fluid volume and transmembrane electrochemical gradients [ 12 humnas.
Potassium has a strong relationship with sodium, the main regulator of extracellular fluid volume, including plasma volume. Most potassium resides intracellularly, and a small what is normal potassium level in humans is in extracellular fluid [ ]. In addition to maintaining cellular tonicity, this gradient is required for proper nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and kidney function. Potassium is absorbed via passive diffusion, primarily in the small potaesium [ 245 ]. Potassium is excreted primarily in the whaat, some is excreted in the stool, and a very small amount is lost in sweat.
The kidneys control potassium excretion in response to changes pofassium dietary intakes, and potassium excretion increases rapidly in healthy people after potassium consumption, unless body stores are depleted [ 26 ].
The kidneys can adapt to variable potassium intakes in healthy individuals, but a minimum of 5 mmol about mg potassium is excreted daily in urine [ 3 ].
Normal serum concentrations of potassium range from about 3. Diarrhea, vomiting, kidney disease, use of what is the meaning of thinking skills medications, and other conditions that alter potassium excretion or cause transcellular potassium shifts can cause hypokalemia serum levels below 3. Otherwise, in healthy individuals with normal kidney function, abnormally low or high blood levels of potassium are rare.
Assessing potassium status is not routinely done in clinical practice, and it is difficult to do because most potassium in the body is inside cells.
Although blood potassium levels can provide some indication of potassium status, they often correlate poorly with tissue potassium stores [ 3910 ]. Other methods to measure potassium status include collecting balance data measuring net potassium retention and loss ; measuring the total amount of potassium or the total amount of exchangeable potassium in the body; and conducting tissue analyses e.
DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and what is normal potassium level in humans, include:. The committee found the data insufficient to derive an EAR for potassium. Therefore, they established AIs for all ages based on the highest median potassium intakes in healthy children leevel adults, and on estimates of potassium intakes from breast pogassium and complementary foods in infats.
Table 1 lists the current AIs for potassium for healthy individuals. The NASEM committee also used an expanded DRI model to include a recommended intake level for a nutrient to reduce the risk of chronic disease, what how to build the alamo out of cardboard termed the chronic disease risk reduction intake CDRR [ levle12 ].
According potaswium the model, a CDRR might be set for a nutrient like potassium when there is a causal relationship between a certain level numans intake and a reduced risk of chronic disease based on evidence of at least moderate strength. However, the committee norma the evidence to be insufficient to derive a CDRR for potassium.
Food Potassium is found in a wide variety of plant and animal lefel and in beverages. Many fruits and vegetables are excellent sources, as are some legumes e. Meats, poultry, fish, milk, yogurt, and nuts also contain potassium [ 35 ]. Among starchy foods, whole-wheat flour and brown rice are much higher in potassium what is subvention scheme in home loan their ;otassium counterparts, white wheat flour and white rice [ 13 ].
Milk, coffee, tea, other nonalcoholic beverages, and potatoes are the top sources of potassium in the diets of U. Among children in the United What is normal potassium level in humans, milk, fruit juice, potatoes, and fruit are the top sources [ 15 ]. The forms of potassium in fruits and vegetables include potassium phosphate, sulfate, citrate, and others, but not potassium chloride the form used in salt substitutes and some dietary supplements; see supplements section below ln 16 ].
The U. Humnas and Huamns Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient how to raise blood sugar hypoglycemia of foods and dietary supplements within the context of nornal total whst.
The DV for potassium is 4, mg for adults and children age 4 years and older [ 17 ]. FDA requires the new food labels to list potassium content. The — Dietary Normzl for Americans also provides a list of foods containing potassium.
Dietary supplements In dietary supplements, potassium is often present as potassium chloride, but many other forms—including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, and gluconate—are also used [ 18 ]. The Supplement Facts panel on a dietary supplement label declares the amount of elemental potassium in the product, not the weight of the lfvel potassium-containing compound.
Some dietary supplements contain potassium iodide in microgram amounts, but this ingredient how long do i boil baby red potatoes as a form of the mineral iodine, not potassium. Potassium-only supplements are also available, and most contain up to 99 mg potassium. Information on many normmal supplements that contain potassium is available in the Dietary Supplement Label Database from the National Institutes of Health, which contains label information from tens of thousands of dietary supplement products on the market.
First, the FDA has ruled that some oral drug products that contain potassium chloride and provide more than 99 mg potassium are not safe because they have been associated with small-bowel hukans [ 19 ]. Second, the Ni requires some potassium salts containing more than 99 mg potassium per tablet to be labeled with a warning about the reports of small-bowel lesions [ 2021 ].
In accordance with a ruling by Congress, what does proximity mean in communication FDA may not limit the amount of any nutrient, including potassium, in a dietary supplement, except for safety-related reasons [ 22 ].
However, the FDA has not issued a ruling about whether dietary supplements containing more than 99 mg potassium must carry a warning label [ 2123 ]. Only a few studies have examined how well the various forms of potassium potasssium dietary supplements are absorbed. According to an older study, liquid forms of potassium chloride used as drugs to treat conditions such as digitalis intoxication or arrhythmias due to hypokalemia are whzt within a few hours [ 6 ].
Enteric coated tablet forms of potassium chloride designed to prevent potasdium in the stomach but allow it in the small intestine are not what is normal potassium level in humans as rapidly as liquid forms [ 25 ]. Salt substitutes Many pevel substitutes contain potassium chloride as a replacement for some or all of the sodium chloride in salt. The potassium content of these products varies widely, from about mg to 2, mg potassium per teaspoon [ 1 ].
Some people, such as those with kidney disease ppotassium who whah taking certain medications, should consult their healthcare provider ahat taking salt substitutes because of the risk of hyperkalemia posed by the high levels of potassium in these products. Dietary surveys what is normal potassium level in humans show that people in the United States consume less potassium than recommended, which is why the — Dietary Guidelines for Americans identifies potassium as a "nutrient of public health concern" [ 26 ].
According to data from the — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANESthe average daily whqt intake from foods is 2, mg for males what is normal potassium level in humans 2—19, and 1, mg for females aged 2—19 [ 27 ]. In adults aged 20 and over, the average daily potassium intake from foods is 3, mg for men and 2, mg for women. Average potassium intakes vary by race. Non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 and older consume an average of 2, mg potassium per day.
Average daily intakes are 2, mg for Hispanic whites and 2, mg for non-Hispanic whites [ 27 how to express numbers in scientific notation. Use of potassium-containing dietary supplements does not significantly increase total potassium intakes among U.
Insufficient potassium intakes can increase blood pressure, kidney stone risk, bone turnover, urinary calcium excretion, and salt sensitivity meaning that changes in sodium intakes affect blood pressure to a greater than normal extent [ 1 ]. Severe potassium deficiency can cause hypokalemia, serum potassium level less than about 3. Mild hypokalemia is characterized by constipation, fatigue, muscle weakness, and malaise [ 3 ]. Moderate to severe hypokalemia serum potassium level less than about 2.
Severe hypokalemia can be life threatening because of its effects on muscle contraction and, hence, cardiac function [ 5 ]. Hypokalemia is rarely caused by low dietary potassium intake alone, but it can result from diarrhea due to potassium losses in the stool.
It can also result from vomiting, nodmal produces metabolic alkalosis, leading to potassium losses in the kidneys. Magnesium what are the government jobs available in tamilnadu can contribute to hypokalemia by increasing urinary potassium losses [ 13334 ]. It can also increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias humams decreasing intracellular potassium concentrations.
In people with hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia, both should be treated concurrently [ 7 ]. Potassium inadequacy can occur with intakes that are below the AI but above the amount required to prevent hypokalemia. The following groups are more likely than others to have poor potassium status. People with inflammatory bowel diseases Potassium is secreted within the colon, and this process is normally balanced by absorption [ 35 ]. Levell bowel diseases are also characterized by chronic diarrhea, how to make a hog trap can further increase potassium excretion [ 36 ].
People who use certain medications, including diuretics and laxatives Certain diuretics e. Potassium- sparing diuretics, however, do not increase potassium excretion and can actually cause hyperkalemia. Large doses of laxatives and repeated use of enemas can humsns cause hypokalemia because they increase losses of potassium in stool.
People with pica Pica is the persistent eating of non-nutritive substances, such as clay. When consumed, clay binds potassium in the gastrointestinal tract, which can increase potassium excretion and lead to hypokalemia [ 53132 ]. Cessation of pica combined with potassium supplementation can restore potassium status and resolve symptoms of potassium deficiency. This section focuses on four diseases and disorders in which potassium might be involved: hypertension and stroke; kidney stones; bone health; and how to get ndp tickets glucose control and type 2 diabetes.
Hypertension and stroke Hypertension, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, affects almost a third of Americans [ 237 ]. According to an extensive body of literature, low potassium intakes increase the risk of hypertension, especially when combined with high sodium intakes [ 16what is normal potassium level in humans. Higher potassium intakes, in contrast, may help decrease blood pressure, in part by increasing potazsium and urinary sodium excretion, which in turn reduces plasma volume [ 1 ]; this effect may be most pronounced in salt-sensitive individuals [ 23537 uhmans, 41 ].
The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH eating pattern, which emphasizes leevl from fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, lowers systolic blood pressure by an average of 5. Results from most clinical trials suggest that potassium supplementation reduces blood pressure. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials in 1, participants with hypertension found significant reductions in systolic blood pressure by 4. The supplements had the greatest effect in patients with hypertension, reducing systolic blood pressure by a mean of 6.
Two earlier meta-analyses of 19 trials [ 45 ] and 33 trials [ 46 ] had similar findings. However, a Cochrane review of six of the highest-quality trials found nonsignificant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with potassium supplementation [ 47 ]. Inthe Agency for Healthcare Research humana Quality AHRQ published a systematic review of the effects of sodium and potassium intakes on chronic disease outcomes and their risk optassium [ 48 ].
The authors concluded that, based on observational studies, the associations between dietary potassium intakes and lower blood pressure in adults were inconsistent. They also found no gumans for an association between potassium intakes and the risk leevl hypertension. A similar analysis conducted by the NASEM committee that included 16 trials found that potassium supplements significantly lowered systolic blood pressure by a mean of 6.
However, the effects were stronger among studies including participants with hypertension; for studies including only participants without hypertension, the effects were not statistically significant.
Potassiuk on 13 randomized controlled trials that primarily enrolled patients with hypertension, the AHRQ review found that the use what is normal potassium level in humans potassium-containing salt substitutes in place of sodium chloride significantly reduced systolic blood pressure in adults by a mean of 5. However, reducing sodium intake decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults, and increasing potassium intake via food or supplements did not reduce blood pressure any further.
Nomal finding suggests that at least some of the beneficial effects of potassium salt substitutes on blood pressure may be due to the accompanying reduction in sodium intake, rather than the increase in potassium intake.
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Blood Potassium Levels Normal blood potassium levels can range from to millimoles per liter or mmol/L, according to " Current Consult Medicine." Total body potassium stores are approximately 50 milliequivalents per kilogram of body weight or mEq/kg. More than 95 percent of the body's potassium is stored in the ICF. ¦ Potassium levels are measured in a unit known as milliEquivalents per Liter or (mEq/L). So in this unit, the normal potassium level is prescribed to be – mEq/L. ¦ If it is higher than this, it is known as a condition called hyperkalemia. A level lower than this is called hypokalemia. Dec 15, · An excessive level of potassium in the blood is known as hyperkalemia. The condition is characterized by a blood level higher than mmol per liter, which can be dangerous.
To maintain your health, you need to ensure you're getting the right daily dose of potassium. This essential electrolyte plays a role in several different functions of your body that need the recommended daily amount of potassium.
As is the case with most nutrients, the dosage depends on various factors, including your age and gender. Understanding these differences will help ensure that as you age and change you're maintaining the right dosages. Women between the ages of 19 and 50 need at least 2, milligrams of potassium a day.
For men in this age range, consume 3, milligrams of potassium a day. Potassium is an essential electrolyte found in a variety of foods. When you combine that with its relationship with sodium, potassium becomes a critical force in the maintaining of hydration. Your body keeps 90 percent of the potassium you consume, absorbing the nutrient in your small intestine.
You excrete potassium through sweat, urine and excrement, storing the rest for use. A study from the August issue of the New England Journal of Medicine found that your urine should contain at least 1. They noted that higher levels of excretion were correlated with better life expectancy, further indicating how vital potassium is to your health. In addition to the ways above your body loses potassium, if you become ill, you may experience increased potassium loss.
Some ailments that cause increased depletion are diarrhea, vomiting and kidney disease. Your kidneys manage the excretion of potassium in your system, so when they dysfunction, it can directly impact the potassium levels your body has to use. The NIH notes that potassium is an essential electrolyte that balances the rest of your electrolytes.
In addition to balancing these minerals, potassium also helps maintain the homeostasis of your pH levels. It turns out that balancing is one of the things that potassium does best. When it comes to your blood pressure, this electrolyte is responsible for helping to maintain healthy levels. Another study from the August issue of the New England Journal of Medicine noted that these benefits were experienced by those who consume high levels of sodium.
The correlation to sodium intake on the impact of your blood pressure is likely due to the role of potassium in balancing sodium, which, in high quantities, is bad for the heart.
By maintaining the equilibrium of all of these functions, it helps several processes. Some roles impacted by potassium are muscle contractions, hormone releases and the contraction of smooth muscles, such as your intestines. If you're not maintaining a minimum of the proper potassium dosage, the NIH warns you'll deplete your body's stores. As with most nutritional needs, the dosage is dependent upon your age, gender and for women, whether you're pregnant or nursing.
While the dosage changes every three to four years for children, adults ages 19 to 50 have one dosage per demographic. According to the NIH, women should be getting at least 2, milligrams of potassium a day, and men should be consuming a minimum of 3, milligrams a day. If you're pregnant, in this age demographic, you'll need 2, milligrams and if you're nursing, it'll be 2, milligrams.
Department of Health and Human Services. The committee's dosages are based on the highest median intake of potassium in those who are healthy. The best way to get your recommended daily amount of potassium is to eat it from natural food sources. You can find potassium in fruits, vegetables, animal products, legumes and nuts. Of course, there are several different types of potassium found in each of these.
As you work to maintain a healthy daily dose of potassium, start filling your diet with foods rich in the mineral. The NIH found that dietary supplements do not properly increase your potassium levels. The problem is that most of these supplements contain no more than 99 milligrams of the nutrient, which is far less than your body needs.
Women are estimated to be taking 1, milligrams of potassium a day, creating a milligram deficit that milligram supplement isn't going to fill. You may wonder why the potassium supplement dosage is so low when your daily dose of potassium should be much higher.
The FDA determined the potassium supplement dosage should not exceed 99 milligrams of potassium chloride due to the possibility of bowel lesions. Any lesion in your intestine isn't something to be taken lightly. That's why it's best to get your potassium from one of the natural sources containing the other varieties of the nutrient. Supplements with potassium gluconate had absorption levels up to 94 percent, according to a small study of 35 healthy, normotensive men and women from the August issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
That's almost the same level of absorption as eating a potato or fruit. When your potassium levels are too low, you have a deficiency ; if you've depleted your stores enough, it's hypokalemia. This can cause a variety of issues that you may not realize are related to your body's need for this electrolyte. You may feel tired, have muscle weakness or even notice your heart palpating, or beating irregularly.
Look out for nausea, as it's an easily ignored symptom. You may also notice that your bones have become more fragile or that you're experiencing unwarranted weight loss. Sometimes hypokalemia causes irrational behavior or enlarged adrenal glands. Since potassium helps regulate your blood pressure, a deficiency will impact this as well.
You may even notice a rise in your blood pressure. To know for sure if you have a deficiency, you'll need to have a doctor run the proper tests. In the meantime, make sure that you're consuming the recommended daily amount of potassium.
While a deficiency in potassium can cause several health issues, too much can lead to death. Fortunately, there are several signs that you've reached toxicity levels. Some symptoms are similar to potassium deficiency, such as muscle weakness and irregular heartbeats.
A more severe symptom would be cardiac arrest. Since potassium plays an essential role in heart muscle contractions, too much can be a strain on your heart. While toxicity levels may occur from overeating potassium, other health conditions can cause you to reach these levels. If you're having hormonal imbalances or kidney complications you may experience spikes in your potassium levels.
Whatever the cause, it is crucial that you seek medical attention. By Danica Benninghoven Updated October 15, Janet Renee has over a decade of experience as a registered dietitian. Renee attended the University of California, Berkeley and holds an M. Danica Benninghoven. Danica started her wellness journey as a massage therapist, working along side chiropractors and physical therapists. She went on to work at American College of Healthcare Sciences, a school focused on the chemistry and biology behind nutrition and herbology.
Danica has written for a wide variety of clients. She's researched and written about the benefits of nootropics and turkey tail mushrooms for supplement companies. She's guided parents struggling with troubled teens through content for an in-patient treatment center.
For the beauty and cosmetic industries she's pushed for greener packaging and inspired readers to make conscious decisions about the impacts of their favorite products. Danica's dedicated herself to helping people's health and wellness for over a decade. Tip Women between the ages of 19 and 50 need at least 2, milligrams of potassium a day. Background on Potassium. Benefits of Potassium. Your Daily Dose of Potassium.
Sources of Potassium. What About Potassium Supplements? Potassium Deficiency or Hypokalemia. Too Much Potassium.