what is the definition of caravel

Caravel definition is - any of several sailing ships; specifically: a small 15th and 16th century ship that has broad bows, high narrow poop, and usually three masts with lateen or both square and lateen sails. car·a·vel. or car·a·velle (kar??-vel?) also car·vel (kar?v?l, -vel?) n. Any of several types of small, light sailing ships, especially one with two to four masts and lateen sails used by the Spanish and Portuguese in the s and s. [French caravelle, from Old French, from Old Portuguese caravela, diminutive of caravo, ship, from Late Latin.

The caravel of the 15th and 16th centuries what is the definition of caravel a ship with a distinctive shape and admirable qualities.

A gently sloping bow and single stern castle were prominent features of this vessel, how to knit on a long loom it carried a mainmast and a mizzen mast that were generally lateen-rigged. Although the caravel had already been what is the definition of fantasy use for hundreds of years, it developed into an incredibly fast, easily maneuverable vessel by this time, which was noticed by eminent people.

This extraordinary vessel gained fame with the Portuguese and Spanish voyages of discovery. However, as is evident in the historical record, not all caravels were designed the same way, and many changes were made throughout the caravek and development of the ship.

There is very little iconography that depicts the caravel at any stage of its development, and as of yet there are no extant remains of one defonition these vessels. However, it is still possible to trace the origin of the ship and study it through historical accounts, shipbuilding treatises, ethnographic studies, and archaeological parallels.

It ths the purpose of this thf to examine these sources, as well as studies done by various scholars over the years, in order to present the diagnostic features of 15th and 16th century Iberian shipbuilding in general and the caravel in particular. The exact origin of the caravel is a matter of some debate.

There are many possibilities and refinition, but no conclusive evidence to sustain them. That wgat caravel was a fishing vessel in the 13th century is evident from Portuguese records from that period.

Although little is known about the technical details of this small Arab vessel, it had preferred features that allowed it to transform into progressively larger forms, much like the caravel. By examining the sources in which these early carsvel appear, as well as other contemporary ships with regard to tonnage and buildan indication of the size and capacity ghe the early caravels can be found.

Early sources, such as the floral of Vila Nova de Gaia, refer to the caravel as paying the lowest entry toll on the list 8. By comparing the caravel with the other ships on the list, a relatively small size and capacity can be attributed to this early version of the vessel. Throughout the centuries, this changed as the utilization wht the caravel also changed. Although the word caravel may or may not have been derived from an Arabic term, Islamic influences definitely shaped the fate of the 15th-and 16th-century caravel.

As Muslims conquered various lands throughout the Mediterranean and Western world, they borrowed learning from the people they subjugated. Unlike other conquerors, they what is the definition of caravel not simply impose their view of the world on other nations.

They amalgamated their philosophies with those of other cultures and thus their conception of the world grew. How to write a bill for senate this, the Muslims served as conveyors of ideas received from people they conquered.

They disseminated ideologies from different cultures and by the end of their reign in the 13th century the world view was much different than the popular ideas of Western Europe. A liberal philosophy induced an enthusiasm for investigation and examination which changed the basis of Iberian life 9. Eventually, this spirit of inquiry compelled the Spanish and Portuguese to explore the vast oceans that were so integral to their lives. It is easy to see then, why Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugalconsumed with expansionist ideals, chose the caravel as the ship to carry out the demands of his journey to the West African coast in the s.

Earlier explorers used barks of about 25 tons, which had a single mast. They also experimented with the longer and larger barinels, but neither of these vessels was adequate for the increasingly longer voyages For these reasons, the defiinition was summoned to perform the duties of an explorer. Although by the early 15th century, the caravel had highly admirable qualities, it was still far from ideal.

The main reasons it was chosen for the exploration of the African coast were speed and the ability to sail windward. During the 15th century, Iberian shipbuilding underwent a new phase of design, involving an adaptation to the demands of ships of discovery.

The keel of this immense vessel had a length of Such ambition also called for changes in the caravel as a ship of discovery. Rather than using the technical knowledge of naval architects, these demands were taken on by skilled craftsman, who were capable of transforming the geometry of the vessel to suit the requirements of a sea-going explorer The Portuguese retained the lateen sails for their caravels, because they better suited their purposes on the African Coast.

But by this time in Spain, the caravel had largely transformed from the caravela latina to the caravela redonda It was now a three-masted vessel wielding a square sail on the mainmast and foremast, and a lateen sail on the mizzen. This new sail arrangement provided the how to say go russia in russian adjustments to make the caravel what was commonly referred to as the best sailing vessel of its time.

It continued to increase in size, but was still small enough to be easily maneuvered. As the ship became heavier, it also became beamier in order to increase the carrying capacity for each meter of length The length to breadth ratios were now likely in the range of to Its development over the centuries made it a viable option for exploration, trading, warfare, and piracy. The Islamic influence affected many subjects which relate to seafaring—geography, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.

Many devices, such as the astrolabe, compass, and sextant were applied to seafaring in innovative ways Now that European nations were immersed in these philosophies spread by Muslims, many people became frightened of Muslim influence.

Consequently, this resulted in a demand to increase the centralization of Christian kingdoms, which helped unite Europe This collaboration influenced shipbuilding and led to a fusion of ideas, theories, and methods that became more and more widespread.

Returning to the 13th-century caravel, a variety of forms can be seen. It is known from the flora of Vila Nova that these caravels were small and of limited capacity. This is understandable, considering during this period of their development they were likely primarily what is the definition of caravel vessels.

Their shallow draught and low sides indicate their usefulness as such a vessel along Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. However, it is also conceivable that these ships were employed for trade and, therefore, could have been what is the definition of caravel decked at this time.

Since many ships during this period were similar to the caravel in size and rigging, a tentative comparison can be made with other vessels regarding tonnage and keel to beam ratios.

The 13th-century caravel is surmised to have been a lateen one-or two-master under thirty tons, with a keel to beam ratio of This is rather high compared to the ratio of the ship during its last stages wwhat development in the 17th century, which had a keel to beam ratio of 2.

These ratios and tonnages of the 13th-century vessel are very speculative, but as Elbl notes, 14th century records—dated AD —from the Biscayan area mention small caravels with crews of nine men each. According to Azevedo, these manning ratios in the 15th century represent vessels of toneis Although during the 14th century there is little doubt that caravels continued to be utilized as fishing and commercial vessels, there is an odd absence of the ship in records which cannot be easily explained.

Caravels are not mentioned in historical accounts other than the Definitlon records ofnor are they depicted in the available iconography of the period. Despite this absence, there was definitely a shift in the size of caravels as they took over the functions of another light Portuguese vessel, the varinel. The varinel, which resembled the Caraavel balener, was better suited to sail in the Bay of Biscay than other southern ships of the same size.

This shift may be indicative of transitions from a coastal vessel to one capable of faring well in the high seas. By the first what is the definition of caravel of the 15th century, this shift was noted in Catalonia. These alterations included increases in carrying capacity. At this caragel, an examination of various documents and manuscripts can help describe the practice of Iberian shipbuilding, for they do not become available until the 16th century.

Until records of shipbuilding practices were kept, such information was safeguarded in the minds of skilled masters who passed on the traditions orally from generation to generation, and by shared work experience. However, as Casado Soto what is the definition of caravel out, the combination of low life expectancy and ddfinition rigid secrecy that was practiced regarding this specialized knowledge ensured that these traditions would not survive in writing However, how to defend yourself in criminal court the reign of Charles V and the expansion of foreign policy, there was an increase in management techniques.

By the time Phillip II became king, the Spanish bureaucracy reached maturity. During his reignhe regulated navigation in how to check voicemail on home phone connect, set a standard for mercantile shipbuilding, and introduced technical specifications that led to improvements in safety He gave incentive to shipbuilders by exempting sales tax for the purchasing of shipbuilding materials.

Phillip II also established an efficient system for measuring the hulls and capacities of ships, and was the first European monarch to use a prototype to build ships for the armadas, choosing the galleon as the model Decinition is during his reign that the production of documents recording shipbuilding techniques grew the most. The following are some of the documents that have been wht. These documents are useful tools for studying the history of shipbuilding, but caution must be taken when interpreting them.

The various authors were influenced by their professions and the extent of their experience in shipbuilding is largely unknown. Nevertheless, they give information on raw what is the definition of caravel needed for shipbuilding, as well as dimension and tonnage of ships.

Manuscripts and treatises concerning shipbuilding during this period may be more helpful in understanding how Iberian ships were constructed. To learn more about these manuscripts, visit the shipbuilding treatises page on this website. Fernandez,reprint. Translation by this author. Azevedo, P. Documentos das chancelarias reaes relativos a Marrocos. Baker, J. Barata, J. Barker, R. Alves, Lisbon: IPA. Cano, T. Arte off fabricar, fortificar y aparejar naos de guerra y merchant.

Original edition, Sevelle, Casado Soto, J. Documentation, Archaeology, and Iconography from the 15th and 16th Centuries. Genova: Tipografia how to install i o link R.

Edwards, C. Elbl, M. Etayo, C. Fernandez, M. Lisbon: Academia de Marinha.

Related articles

What does caravel mean? Any of several types of small, light sailing ships, especially one with two to four masts and lateen sails used by the S Dictionary. Caravel, a light sailing ship of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries in Europe, much-used by the Spanish and Portuguese for long voyages. Apparently developed by the Portuguese for exploring the coast of Africa, the caravel’s chief excellence lay in its capacity for sailing to windward. A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave her speed and the capacity for sailing to windward.

The lateen sails gave it speed and the capacity for sailing windward beating. Caravels were used by the Portuguese and Castilians for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and the 16th centuries, during the Age of Discovery. Until the 15th century Europeans were limited to coastal navigation. They used the barge or the balinger barinel , which were ancient cargo vessels of the Mediterranean Sea with a capacity of around 50 to tons. These boats were fragile, with only one mast with a fixed square sail that could not overcome the navigational difficulties of southward oceanic exploration, as the strong winds , shoals and strong ocean currents easily overwhelmed their abilities.

They were agile and easier to navigate than the barca and barinel, with a tonnage of 50 to tons and 1 to 3 masts , with lateen triangular sails allowing beating. Being smaller and having a shallow keel , the caravel could sail upriver in shallow coastal waters.

With the lateen sails attached, it was highly maneuverable and could sail much nearer the shore, while with the square Atlantic-type sails attached, it was very fast. Its economy, speed, agility, and power made it esteemed as the best sailing vessel of its time.

The limited capacity for cargo and crew were their main drawbacks, but did not hinder its success. The exploration done with caravels made the spice trade of the Portuguese and the Spanish possible. However, for the trade itself, the caravel was later replaced by the larger carrack nau , which was more profitable for trading.

The caravel was one of the pinnacle ships in Iberian ship development from — Due to its lighter weight and thus greater speed, the caravel was a boon to sailors. Early caravels generally carried two or three masts with lateen sails , while later types had four masts. Early caravels such as the caravela tilhada of the 15th century had an average length of between 12 and 18 m 39 and 59 ft , an average capacity of 50 to 60 tons, [2] a high length-to-beam ratio of around 3.

Towards the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese developed a larger version of the caravel, bearing a forecastle and sterncastle — though not as high as those carracks, which would have made it unweatherly — but most distinguishable for its square-rigged foremast , and three other masts bearing lateen rig. In this form it was referred to in Portuguese as a "round caravel" caravela redonda as in Iberian tradition, a bulging square sail is said to be round.

It was employed in coast-guard fleets near the Strait of Gibraltar and as an armed escort for merchant ships between Portugal and Brazil and in the Cape Route. Some consider this a forerunner of the fighting galleon and remained in use until the 17th century.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of sailing ship. Not to be confused with caraval or carvel boat building. For the band, see Caravels band. Prince Henry 'the Navigator': A Life. Yale University Press. ISBN Types of sailing vessels and rigs. Montagu whaler. Timeline of largest passenger ships. Oceans portal. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Look up caravel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.