Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Definition and How to Use It
The expectancy theory of motivation or the expectancy theory is the belief that an individual will choose their behaviors based on what they believe will lead to the most beneficial outcome. This theory is dependent on how much value a person places on different motivations, resulting in a decision they expect will give them the highest return for their efforts. Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a theory of motivation in the workplace. It states that an individual within your team will be motivated when they believe they can hit their targets, they know they will be rewarded for hitting those targets, and they value the reward.
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivationperformance, and outcomes. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.
Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i.
This is affected by such things as:. Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be how to open up a metro pcs store. The degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome. Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it.
For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off. Crucially, Vroom's expectancy theory works on perceptions — so even if an employer thinks they have provided everything appropriate for motivation, and even if this works with most people in that organisation, it doesn't mean that someone won't what is the expectancy theory of motivation that it doesn't work for them.
At first glance expectancy theory would seem most applicable to a traditional-attitude work situation where how motivated the employee is depends on whether they want the reward on offer for doing a good job and whether they what size should a raised garden bed be more effort will lead to that reward. However, it could equally apply to any situation what is the expectancy theory of motivation someone does something because they expect a certain outcome.
For example, I recycle paper because I think it's important to conserve resources and take a stand on environmental issues valence ; I think that the more effort I put into recycling the more paper I will recycle expectancy ; and I think that the more paper I recycle then less resources will be used instrumentality. Thus, Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes.
So if we got the same raise this year, but I think you put in a lot less effort, this theory suggests that I would scale back the effort I put in. Other theories don't allow for the same degree of individuality between people. This model takes into account individual perceptions and thus personal histories, allowing a richness of response not obvious in Maslow or McClelland, who assume that people are essentially all the same.
Vroom's expectancy theory could also be overlaid over another theory e. Maslow could be used to describe which outcomes people are motivated by and Vroom to describe whether they will act based upon their experience and expectations. Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that:.
In order to enhance the performance-outcome tie, managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance. Managers also need to ensure that the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients.
In order to improve the effort-performance tie, managers should engage in training to improve their capabilities and improve their belief that added effort will in fact lead to better performance. The implication of Vroom's expectancy theory is that people change their level of effort according to the value they place on the bonus they receive from the process and on their perception of the strength of the links between effort and outcome.
This means that even if an organisation achieves two out of three, that employees would still not be motivated, all three are required for positive motivation. For financial bonuses, it implies that people need to feel that their increased effort will be able to attain the level needed to get the bonus.
Or, if no additional effort is needed, none will be added. This means a balance must be created, if a financial bonus is to be given, between making it achievable and not making it too easy to achieve.
There need to be clear standards of achievement. On top of that, the question is to what is the expectancy theory of motivation extent financial bonuses are really valued by people. If we look at the needs theories and Herzberg's motivation factors, money is just a small part of a much larger picture. For the first time ever, practice meets theory in a concise report on how people get de motivated, and exactly what you can do to get them back on track.
We put a lot of effort in creating these pages, and offering you content that you can use. If you value our work, please reward us by liking or linking to this article or website. You can also donate a small token of your appreciation:. YourCoach Employee motivation theories Vroom expectancy motivation theory Vroom expectancy motivation theory Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivationperformance, and outcomes.
What is the expectancy theory of motivation is affected by such things as: Having the right resources available how to get a job in america from south africa. This is affected by such things as: Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes — e.
For example, I recycle paper because I think it's important to conserve resources and take a stand on what is an e cig issues valence ; I think that the more effort I put into recycling the more paper I will recycle expectancy ; and I think that the more paper I recycle then less resources will be used instrumentality Thus, Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes.
Employee motivation ebook For the first time ever, practice meets theory in a concise report on how people get de motivated, and exactly what you can do to get them back on track. Newsletter Sign up for our monthly Newsletter. Read here our previous newsletters. Show us some love. Coaching Life coaching Team coaching Coaching program Coaching tools. Training Training offerings Bespoke training Assessment Behavioural assessment.
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What is the expectancy theory of motivation?
Expectancy theory, initially put forward by Victor Vroom at the Yale School of Management, suggests that behavior is motivated by anticipated results or consequences. Vroom proposed that a person decides to behave in a certain way based on the expected result of the chosen behavior. For example, people will be willing to work harder if they think the extra effort will be rewarded. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation is a process theory of motivation. It says that an individual’s motivation is affected by their expectations about the future. Expectancy theory is more concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation and the way they relate to each other. That is, expectancy theory is a cognitive process theory of motivation that is based on the idea that people believe there areFile Size: KB.
People often make decisions based on the reward they expect to receive from their work. This concept, known as the expectancy theory of motivation, can help you gain insight into the different ways you can encourage your team members.
By learning what motivates your colleagues to work harder, you can better assign tasks, set goals and distribute meaningful rewards. In this article, we will review what expectancy theory is and how you can use it to motivate others in the workplace. The expectancy theory of motivation or the expectancy theory is the belief that an individual will choose their behaviors based on what they believe will lead to the most beneficial outcome.
This theory is dependent on how much value a person places on different motivations, resulting in a decision they expect will give them the highest return for their efforts. Related: Using Performance Management in the Workplace. To help create a correlation between the efforts and performance that make up expectancy theory, look for the following three core variables:. Expectancy is the belief that if an individual raises their efforts, their reward will rise as well.
Expectancy is what drives a person to gather the right tools to get the job done, which could include:.
Some of the most common factors associated with your level of expectancy include:. Self-efficacy: The belief in your ability to successfully perform can impact your motivation levels. Goal difficulty: The difficulty level of your goal may influence the outcome you expect from your work. Control: The level of control you feel you have over your performance can influence the efforts you make. Instrumentality is the belief that the reward you receive will depend on your performance in the workplace.
The employee should have clear expectations for their reward. Some of the most common rewards include:. Generally, instrumentality increases if you feel that you have more control as to how, why or when you will receive rewards. Valence is the importance you place on the expected outcome of your performance. This often depends on what your individual needs, goals, values and sources of motivation are.
You can use expectation theory to improve the motivation of your team by following these steps:. Always deliver on your promises so you can establish and continue to build trust with your team. Trust your team to handle the tasks you give them, and challenge them to reach their full potential. At the same time, remember to keep expectations achievable to help keep your colleagues motivated and confident in their work.
Part of motivating your team includes understanding the unique skills they bring to the company and seeing how they can use those skills to meet their goals. When you assign an employee a task based on their skills, they will likely have more confidence in their ability to finish it. Always communicate your expectations and rewards clearly. The more transparent you are, the more your team will trust they will be rewarded properly for their work.
When you distribute rewards for performance on a project or task, you should make sure that they match the levels of effort put in and performance achieved. Indeed Home. Find jobs. Company reviews. Find salaries. Upload your resume. Sign in. Career Development. What is the expectancy theory of motivation? Key elements of the expectancy theory of motivation.
Raw materials and resources Skills to perform the job Support and information from supervisors. The reward a team member can expect to receive should be clearly communicated. An individual should trust that their manager or supervisor will give them an appropriate reward for their efforts.
A pay increase A promotion Recognition A sense of accomplishment. How to use the expectancy theory of motivation in the workplace. Make sure your promises to your team align with company policy. Create challenging but achievable goals. Set clear connections between performance and reward.
Make reward distribution fair and logical. Related View More arrow right. You can set professional and personal goals to improve your career. Learning Styles for Career Development Do you know the three types of learning styles?