what was the quit india movement

Quit India Movement – History, Significance, Slogan

Oct 30,  · Quit India Movement - (Modern Indian History NCERT Notes) Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan also known as August Kranti Maidan is the place where the quit India movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi. He along with other leaders gathered here on August 8 and 9, The outcome of the movement was that Congress was declared an unlawful association and its offices all . In an effort to bring the British to the negotiating table, Gandhi launched his ‘Quit India’ movement in August , and issued from a large meeting ground in Bombay (since re-named August Kranti [revolution] Maidan) the famous call to ‘do or die’: Indians were to wage one last struggle to achieve independence, or die in that attempt.

At the outbreak of war in between Britain and Germany, India was also declared to be at war with Germany as it constituted part of wyat British empire. The Congress took the view that while it opposed fascism, it could render no support to the British either: there was little to choose between the totalitarianism of the Nazis and the colonialism of the British.

Consequently, neutrality was the official policy of the Congress. There were widespread acts of sabotage, and the government held Gandhi responsible for these acts of violence, suggesting that they were a deliberate act of Congress policy. Gandhi resolutely denied these charges, but the deadlock was not to be resolved. It has been suggested by other scholars that though Gandhi himself did not authorize violence, he had grown skeptical of the efficacy of non-violence, and that he had arrived at the point in his life where he was determined to see India attain independence during his lifetime.

Consequently, it has been argued, the Muslim League, which declared its support to the British, was to grow in strength during the war, while the Congress languished. Though the Muslim League failed to secure support even among Muslim voters before the war, elections in suggested that it had the loyalty of the majority of How to unlock a hiptop in many Muslim-dominant areas.

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his last satyagraha campaign, the Quit India movement. Declaring that the British presence in India was a provocation to the Japanese, Gandhi called on the British to “quit India” and to leave Indians to deal with the Japanese by nonviolent means, but Gandhi and all members of the Congress Party. Quit India Movement In August , Gandhiji started the 'Quit India Movement' and decided to launch a mass civil disobedience movement 'Do or Die' call to force the British to leave India. The movement was followed, nonetheless, by large-scale violence directed at railway stations, telegraph offices, government buildings, and other emblems and institutions of colonial rule. Aug 17,  · The Quit India movement was the turning point in Colonial India and after many many years, we were finally given the independence we struggled for. History. As the Second World War was ignited in , India was dragged into it by the British without consultation and was made to fight.

Its aim was to bring the British government to the negotiating table through determined, but passive resistance. Unilaterally and without consultation, the British had entered India into World War II, arousing the indignation of large numbers of Indian people.

On July 14, , the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain and massive civil disobedience. In a speech entitled, "Do or Die," given on August 8, , Gandhi urged the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. His call found support among a large number of Indians, including revolutionaries who were not necessarily party to Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence. Almost the entire Congress leadership, both at the national and local levels, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders spent the rest of the war in jail.

Despite lack of direct leadership, large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. The British responded with mass detentions, making over , arrests. Within a few months the Movement had died down, and when the British granted independence on August 15, , they cited revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India.

However, the political experience gained by the Indian people through activities such as the Quit India movement laid the foundation for the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial Africa and Asia. The response in India was divided; some Indians wanted to support the British during the Battle of Britain , hoping for eventual independence through this effort.

Others were enraged by the British disregard for Indian intelligence and civil rights, and were unsympathetic to the travails of the British people, which they saw as rightful punishment for their subjugation of Indians. At the outbreak of war, during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September, , the Congress Party had passed a resolution conditionally supporting the fight against fascism [1] , but were rebuffed when they asked for independence in return.

Gandhi, a committed believer in non-violent resistance, had not supported this initiative, because he could not support an endorsement of war; he advocated nonviolent resistance even against the tyranny of Hitler , Mussolini , and Tojo. At the height of the Battle of Britain , however, Gandhi expressed his support for the fight against fascism and the British War effort, stating he did not seek to raise a free India from the ashes of Britain.

However, opinions remained divided. After the onset of the war, only a group led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose took any decisive action. The INA fought hard in the forests of Assam, Bengal and Burma , but ultimately failed owing to disrupted logistic, inadequate arms and supplies from the Japanese, and a lack of support and training. The Quit India Movement tapped into this energy, channeling it into a united, cohesive action. In March, , faced with an increasingly dissatisfied Indian sub-continent which participated in the war only with reluctance; with deterioration in the war situation in Europe and South East Asia ; and with growing dissatisfaction among Indian troops in Europe, and among the civilian population in India, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps' Mission.

The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return for progressive devolution and distribution of power from the Crown and the Viceroy to an elected Indian legislature. However, the talks failed to address the key demands of a time frame for self-government, and of a clear definition of the powers to be relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.

On July 14, , the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain. The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched. However, it proved to be controversial within the party. A prominent Congress national leader, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, quit the Congress over this decision, and so did some local and regional level organizers. Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were apprehensive and critical of the call, but backed it and followed Gandhi's leadership until the end.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad were openly and enthusiastically in favor of such a disobedience movement, as were many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Asoka Mehta and Jaya Prakash Narayan. The Congress had less success in rallying other political forces under a single flag. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to the call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and the Muslim League obtaining power in the Imperial provincial governments.

He told the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. His call found support among a large number of Indians. It also found support among Indian revolutionaries who were not necessarily party to Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence. All the members of the Congress Party's Working Committee national leadership were arrested and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9, and hoisted the flag.

Later, the Congress party was banned. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. Not all the demonstrations were peaceful. At some places bombs exploded, government buildings were set on fire , electricity was cut, and transport and communication lines were severed. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. A total of over , arrests were made nationwide, mass fines were levied, and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging [4].

Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed by police and army fire. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets, and establishing parallel governments. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India, possibly to South Africa or Yemen , but such a step was ultimately not taken, out of fear of intensifying the revolt [5].

The entire Congress leadership was cut off from the rest of the world for over three years. Gandhi's wife, Kasturbai Gandhi, and his personal secretary, Mahadev Desai, died in a short space of months, and Gandhi's own health was failing. Despite this, Gandhi went on a day fast and maintained a superhuman resolve to continue his resistance. Although the British released Gandhi on account of his failing health in , Gandhi kept up the resistance, demanding the complete release of the Congress leadership.

By early , India was mostly peaceful again, while the entire Congress leadership was incarcerated. A sense that the movement had failed depressed many nationalists, while Jinnah and the Muslim League, as well as Congress opponents like the Communists and Hindu extremists, sought to gain political mileage, criticizing Gandhi and the Congress Party.

The successes and failures of the Movement are debated. Some historians claim that it failed. It did, however, cause enough trouble and panic among the War administration for General Lockhart to describe India as an "occupied and hostile country.

Within five months of its inception, the Movement had almost come to a close, and was nowhere near achieving its grandiose aim of toppling the Raj. The primary underlying reason, it appears, was the loyalty of the army, even in places where the local and native police came out in sympathy. Atlee deemed the contribution of "Quit India" movement as minimal, ascribing greater importance to the revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India.

Which phase of our freedom struggle won for us Independence? An extract from a letter written by P. Why then did they do so? Some Indian historians, however, argue that, in fact, the movement had succeeded. The rebellion definitely put a strain on the economic and military resources of the British Empire at a time when they were heavily engaged I World War II. Although at the national level, the ability to galvanize rebellion was limited, the movement is notable for regional success especially at Satara, Talcher, and Midnapore.

It may ultimately be a fruitless question whether it was the powerful common call for resistance among Indians that shattered the spirit and will of the British Raj to continue ruling India, or whether it was the foment of rebellion and resentment among the British Indian Armed Forces.

In addition, the British people and the British Army showed unwillingness to back a policy of repression in India and other parts of the Empire, even as their own country lay shattered by the war's ravages. The INA trials in , the resulting militant movements, and the Bombay mutiny had already shaken the pillar of the Raj in India. Britain openly adopted a political dialogue with the Indian National Congress to prepare for the eventual transfer of power.

On August 15, , India was declared independent. A young, new generation responded to Gandhi's call. Indians who lived through Quit India formed the first generation of independent Indians , whose trials and tribulations sowed the seeds of the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial Africa and Asia. When considered in the light of the turbulence and sectarianism which surfaced during the Partition of India, this can be termed one of the greatest examples of prudence of humanity.

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